Uruhare rw’Itangazamakuru ribi muri Jenoside yakoreye abatutsi mu 1994 mu gukangurira abahutu kwica abatutsi kuko badahuje ubwoko.

Uruhare rw'Itangazamakuru ribi muri Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi 1994

Itangazamakuru ni umwuga uzwi kandi wubahwa ku Isi. Muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu mwaka wa 1994, uyu mwuga wakoreshejwe bihabanye cyangwa bitandukanye n’icyo ugamije. Umwga w’Itangazamakuru ni umwuga wanakoreshejwe mu guhamagarira Abahutu kwica Abatutsi.

Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abayahudi mu mwaka wa 1945, igahitana miliyoni esheshatu mu myaka itanu, Umuryango Mpuzamahanga wari wararahiye wivuye inyuma “ko nta Jenoside izongera kubaho ku Isi”, ariko muri icyo kinyejana na none, ayo mateka yisubiyemo mu Rwanda. Kimwe mu byabigizemo uruhare rudakwiriye gusuzugurwa ni itangazamakuru.

Mu magambo y’abanyapolitiki yagiye anyura mu bitangazamakuru, ntibigombera ubushakashatsi buhambaye kugira ngo ubone uburyo iri ryari itangazamakuru rutwitsi. Twibuke nko mu 1963 igihe Perezida Kayibanda, yavugaga ko abitwaga Inyenzi nibakomeza kugaba ibitero mu Rwanda bene wabo bari mu gihugu bazatsembwa.

Mu ntangiro z’Ukwakira 1990, nyuma y’ibitero by’ingabo z’Inkotanyi mu rugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda ingoma mbi, Habyarimana wari warahawe izina ry’umubyeyi, yatangiye kubwira rubanda ngo “ batandukanye icyatsi n’ururo, bavane urumamfu mu ngano, ba gashakabukahe,…” n’izindi mvugo zakoreshwaga mu kwenyegeza urwango hagati y’abitwaga Abahutu n’abitwaga Abatutsi, byanyuze mu bitangazamakuru ngo bigezwe kuri benshi.

Mu gihe gito Abahutu bari bamaze kwigishwa ko bakwiriye kwica Abatutsi, bamwe barabyemera, ndetse n’abatutsi bamaze kwigishwa ko bakwiye gupfa.

Uruhare rw'Itangazamakuru ribi muri Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi 1994
Uyu ni Geregori Kayibanda wari Perezida wa PARMEHURU na Perezida wa Repubulika ya mbere

Itangazamakuru ryandika

Mu Rwanda itangazamakuru ryanditse ni ryo ryari hasi. Usibye utunyamakuru duto duto twasohokeraga mu bigo n’imiryango runaka yabaga ishaka kuvuga ku byo ikora; ubundi ibinyamakuru byageraga kuri rubanda bisa n’aho byari bine gusa, bibiri muri byo bikaba byari ibya Kiliziya Gatolika.

Ibi binyamakuru bya Kiliziya byari Kinyamateka na Hobe. Byasaga n’aho Kinyamateka yandikirwa abantu bakuze na ho Hobe ikaba ikinyamakuru cy’abana. Nyamara muri rusange n’abakuze bakundaga Hobe cyane.

Ibindi binyamakuru byanditse byari “Imvaho” ikaba yari ikinyamakuru cya Leta, ndetse na Kangura yaje hanyuma ikaza mu murongo nk’uwo RTLM yajemo. Ni ikinyamakuru kigenga ariko byagaragaye ko cyakoreshwaga n’agatsiko kari ku butegetsi mu icengezamatwara ry’ibyo kari kagamije.

Iki kinyamakuru bisa nkaho cyaje ari nk’igihanganye n’ikinyamakuru cyashinjwaga kuba icy’Abatutsi n’Inkotanyi “Kanguka” nk’uko binagaragarira ku buryo inyito z’ibyo binyamakuru zajyaga gusa.

Icyakora byagaragaye ko Kanguka yaje kunigwa burundu ku buryo hari n’abatari bazi ko yigeze ibaho. Hari n’ibindi binyamakuru byabayeho nka “Rwanda rushya” ariko ntabwo byose twabitindaho.

Aha rero turagaruka kuri Kangura kuko yagaragaweho kwenyegeza Jenoside ku buryo bw’umwihariko.

Kangura

Iki kinyamakuru cyaterwaga inkunga n’abasirikare bakuru, abayobozi ba MRND n’urwego rw’igihugu rwari rushinzwe iperereza barimo Liyetona Koloneli Anatole Nsengiyumva na Ptotais Zigiranyirazo bakaba kugeza ubu aba babiri baramaze gukatirwa n’Urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda rw’i Arusha.

Byagaragaye rwose ko Kangura yakoreshwaga n’ubutegetsi bwariho ku buryo babwiraga abanditsi bayo bimwe mu byo benda gukora, abanditsi bakabimenya mbere y’uko biba nk’uko umunyamakuru w’umunyakenya Mary Kamani abivuga.

Ibyavugwagamo

Tugarutse kuri amwe mu manomero yakunze kugaragazwa nk’ayagize ingaruka mbi cyane zo gukongeza urwango mu baturarwanda, harimo inyandiko yasohotse muri nomero ya 6 yasohotse mu Kuboza 1990, ariho hasohotse ya nyandiko twigeze kubona muri umwe mu mitwe ya banje yo muri icyo kinyamakuru yiswe “Amategeko 10 y’Abahutu”. Ayo mategeko yahamyaga ko Umuhutu wese ugira icyo akorana n’Umututsi ari umugambanyi.

Uruhare rw'Itangazamakuru ribi muri Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi 1994

Indi nyandiko yo muri iyo nomero na yo ni iyavugaga ko Abatutsi barimo gutegura intambara ku buryo “Nta n’umwe uzacika ku icumu”. Ku rundi ruhande rw’iyo nomero hariho ifoto ya Perezida w’igihugu cy’u Bufaransa Francois Mitterrand, na yo yari iherekejwe n’amagambo agira ati “ Inshuti nyanshuti uyimenyera mu byago.”

Na none ku ya 9 Gashyantare 1991 yaragiraga iti “ Mureke tumenye inkotanyi (abashyigikiye FPR) maze mureke tuzitsembatsembe”, na ho muri Werurwe 1993 isohoka igira iti “Inyenzi ibyara inyenzi… amateka y’u Rwanda agaragaza ko Umututsi akiri wawundi, atajya ahinduka.”

Abanditsi bazwi cyane kandi usanga basa n’aho ari bo bandikaga inkuru nk’izo, harimo uwari warashinze icyo kinyamakuru Ngeze Hassan.

Muri Nomero ya 54 Werurwe hari n’aho yanditse avuga ko FPR ifite urutonde rw’abantu 1600 izica n’iramuka ifashe ubutegetsi kandi atanga asa n’utanga ubwega, agira ati “ Ibyitso by’umwanzi birazwi neza, rero inyenzi zakagombye kumva ko zirimo gukora ikosa rikomeye, bazatsembatsembwaho.”

Iyi nonero ya gatatu ya Kangura yasohotse ari mu kwezi k’Ukuboza, mu gihe abantu baba bitegura Noheli n’ Ubunani. Uburyo abanditsi b’iki kinyamakuru bari abahanga mu icengezamatwara rero, bahise bafata inyigisho z’amacakubiri bari bagamije kugeza ku basomyi, maze bazihuza n’ikintu abantu bose baba barangamiye kandi batekerezaho muri ayo matariki.

Ntawabura gutangazwa n’uburyo ibintu nka biriya by’amacakubiri byanacengezwaga mu bantu hifashishijwe iyobokamana! Ntibitangaje rero kuba abantu baraniciwe mu nsengero, cyane cyane ko muri icyo gihe cy’ubwicanyi byanavugwaga ko abitwaga Abatutsi muri icyo gihe ari Imana yabatanze.

Uruhare rw'Itangazamakuru ribi muri Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi 1994

Amaradiyo

Abanyarwanda bumvaga Radio Rwanda gusa, icyakora abize dore ko bari bakeya cyane, bakumva n’izindi Radiyo mpuzamahanga nka BBC, RFI, n’izindi nkeya cyane.

Nyuma haje kumvikana Radiyo Muhabura yifashishwaga na FPR mu icengezamatwara ryayo. Icyakora iyi radiyo yo n’ubwo abantu batari bake bayikurikiraga, ntabwo bayumvaga bisanzuye ahubwo byakorwaga mu rwihisho, kuko Leta yariho icyo gihe yabibuzanyaga, wafatwa uyumva ukitwa icyitso cy’Inkotanyi.

Nyuma ariko na none haje gushingwa indi Radio yitwaga RTLM ishingwa mu by’ukuri bigaragara ko ishinzwe ku mpamvu zihariye zo gukwirakwiza amacakubiri, no gutegurira abantu kwinjira muri Jenoside.

N’ubwo na Radiyo Rwanda muri kiriya gihe umuntu atavuga ko yabaye shyashya kuko nyine yari igikoresho cy’ubutegetsi bwariho, turi bugaruke cyane kuri RTLM yashinzwe kubera izo mpamvu zihariye tumaze kuvuga haruguru.

Bitewe rero n’uko aya maradiyo abiri ari yo yari yemerewe kuvuga mu Rwanda, atangaza ibiganiro byayo ahanini mu kinyarwanda, byayahaga amahirwe yo gukurikirwa n’Abanyarwanda hafi ya bose bityo inyigisho zayatangirwaho zigacengera muri benshi kandi bitagoye.

RTLM (Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines)

Yari Radiyo yatangiye kuvuga ku wa 8 Nyakanga 1993 ariko yagize uruhare rugaragara muri Jenoside hagati ya Mata na Nyakanga 1994. Iyi Radio yumvwaga n’abaturage benshi cyane, byatumye ikwirakwiza urwango mu buryo bworoshye. Mu bintu byatumye ubwicanyi bugira imbaraga kandi bugakwirakwira vuba, harimo amagambo y’ikangura yavugirwaga kuri iyi Radiyo.

Nyuma yo guhanurwa nkw’indege y’uwari Perezida wa Repubulika Yuvenali Habyarimana ku ya 6 Mata 1994 RTLM. iyi Radio yakanguriye rubanda ko Abatutsi bigometse ari bo bakoze ayo mahano maze ihamagarira abantu icyo yitaga intamabara ya nyuma yo gutsemba Abatutsi. Imvugo yasubirwagamo kenshi ni iyo “Gutema ibiti birebire”.

Igihe abasirikare b’Abafaransa bari mu cyiswe “ Opération Turquoise” iyi Radio yakoreraga ku Gisenyi. Ku bw’iyo mpamvu y’abasirikare b’Abafaransa hari aho yakanguye abakobwa b’abo yitaga Abahutu, igira iti “Mwebwe bakobwa b’Abahutu, mwiyuhagire kandi mwambare imyenda myiza, mwakire ingabo z’ubufaransa! Abakobwa b’Abatutsikazi bose barapfuye, rero ayo ni amahirwe yanyu.”

Nyamara igihe igihugu cyose cyari kimaze kujya mu maboka ya FPR, iyo Radiyo na yo yahungiye muri Repubulika iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo.

Bamwe mu bantu barebwaga n’imikorere y’iyo Radio

  • Félicien Kabuga, yari Perezida
  • Ferdinand Nahimana, Umuyobozi wayo (Directeur)
  • Jean Bosco Barayagwiza yari yungirije umuyobozi (Directeur adjoint)
  • Gaspard Gahigi, umuyobozi ushinze gutunganya ibiganiro (Editor-in-chief )
  • Phocas Habimana, yakoraga mu buyobozi ari n’umunyamakuru
  • Georges Ruggiu, umunyamakuru
  • Valerie Bemeriki, umunyamakuru
  • Kantano Habimana, Umunyamakuru
  • Emmanuel Rucogoza, Umunyamakuru
  • Emmanuel Nkomati, Umunyamakuru
  • Noheli Hitimana, Umunyamakuru

Iyi radiyo n’abanyamakuru bayo banakunze gukora icengezamatwara ryabo bifashishije indirimbo za Simoni Bikindi na we uzwiho kuba yararirimbga indirimbo zahamagariraga Abahutu kwishyira hamwe bakarwanya Abatutsi, by’umwihariko mu ndirimbo ze zirimo “ Mbwirabumva” na “Nanga abahutu” n’indi yitwaga “Mbwira abumva.”

Ng’uko uko urwango rwagiriwe Abatutsi rwari rwarigishijwe, ibibatesha agaciro n’ibibaha isura mbi bikavugirwa henshi haba mu biganiro mu ngo, no mu ruhame, mu migani, ndetse byigishwa no mu mashuri. Iri genamigambi ry’igihe kirekire ryashyizwe mu bikorwa kandi mu buryo bworoshye ryifashishije itangazamakuru ribi ryaho icyo gihe.

TANGA IGITEKEREZO KURI IYI NKURU