Ikiyobyabwenge cya Heroine benshi bakunda kwita Mugo si ikintu gishya ku isi kuko umuntu wa mbere wakinyoye ataranamenya ko ari yo yabayeho mu myaka 3400 mbere ya Yezu.

Dore byinshi wamenya kuri Mugo ikiyobyabwenge cyagize ingaruka mbi ku rubyiruko

Ubushakashatsi bw’ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye rishinzwe ubuzima bwagaragaje ko mu mwaka wa 2015 gusa, miliyoni 17 z’urubyiruko muri Afurika zakoreshaga Mugo, mu gihe abagera ku bihumbi 122 bapfa bishwe nayo buri mwaka.

Byibuze abantu 950,000 biganjemo urubyiruko rwo muri Amerika, Afurika na Asia batangira gukoresha iki kiyobyabwenge. Mu mwaka wa 2016 hacurujwe byibuze toni 448 za mugo ku isi yose.

Mu mwaka wa 2015, Afganistan yatunganyaga 66% bya mugo yose yakorwaga ku isi.

Bimwe mu biranga uwanyoye mugo harimo guhindura imyitwarire, kudashaka ko muhuza amaso, uwayinyoye ntaba ashaka kuvuga, atangira kutiyitaho nko kwirirwa umunsi wose atiyuhagiye, yicaye ahantu hamwe adashaka kuhava, akunda gusinzira ku buryo budasanzwe kandi yakanguka ukabona nta mahoro afite n’ibindi.

Iki kiyobyabwenge cyagiye cyongerwamo ibindi binyabutabire bitandukanye ariko kugeza uyu munsi bivugwa ko igice kinini kigize iki kiyobyabwenge ari indabyo zitwa Poppy Flower. Izi ndabyo zagaragaye bwa mbere muri Iraq.

Ubwoko bw’abantu bitwaga Abasumerian (Sumerians) bazwiho kuba abantu ba mbere babashije guhangana n’ikibazo cy’amapfa yari yarazonze isi mu myaka yo hambere kubera imvura yagwaga gake, ni aba kuko barimutse bava muri Persie bajya kubaka inzu zabo z’imiganda hagati bituma babasha kujya buhira ibihingwa byabo igihe cyose cy’umwaka bakabona umusaruro ukubye inshuro 10 ayandi moko.

Nta makuru agaragaza neza uko iki gihingwa cya poppy flower cyavumbuwe, gusa bivugwa ko cyakoreshwaga n’abasumeriya (Sumerians) ubwo bimukaga bava muri Persie bajya gutura hagati y’imigezi ya Tigris na Euphrates. Ngo bakoreshaga mugo nk’umuti uvura uburibwe, no mu gihe bishimisha.

Ikinyabutabire kiba muri Mugo kitwa Diamorphine cyavumbuwe bwa mbere mu n’umunyabutabire w’umwongereza witwa C.R.Alder Wright wakoraga ku bitaro bya St.Mary’s Hospital mu mujyi wa Londres.

Iyo Diamorphine yavanzwe n’ibindi binyabutabire, babitera inyamaswa zirimo imbwa n’inkwavu zitangira kugira ibimenyetso bidasanzwe bisa neza nk’iby’abantu bagira uyu munsi iyo bakoresheje iki kiyobyabwenge.

Nyuma y’imyaka 23 nibwo umushakashatsi w’umudage Felix Hoffmann wakoreraga ikigo gikora imiti cyitwa Bayer Pahrmaceutical yabwiwe n’umukoresha we Henrich Dreser gukoresha Diamorphine yakozwe na Wright akayigabanyiriza ubukana kugira ngo itazajya igira uwayikoresheje imbata, ngo yumve ayishaka buri kanya.

Felix yaragerageje ariko icyo yakoze cyaje gifite ubukana burenze, kigira imbata abantu noneho ku buryo bweruye. Bahise babibonamo amahirwe kubera urukundo abantu bakigiriraga, bagiha izina Heroin, biva ku ijambo ry’ikidage Heroisch, bivuga ikintu gikomeye.

Kuva mu 1898 kugeza mu 1910, Mugo yacuruzwaga nk’umuti wemewe wo kugabanya uburibwe, ariko biza kugaragara ko abawukoresheje bose batawukoresha nk’umuti ahubwo birangira ibabanye ikiyobyabwenge.

Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika zatangiye kugenzura ikoreshwa ry’iki kiyobyabwenge maze ziza guhagarika n’icuruzwa ryacyo mu 1924.

Mugo iva ahanini muri Afganistan na Pakistan, igaturuka mu ndabyo za Poppy Flower, isukari, ifu y’amateke na Quinine.

Mu mateka y’iki kiyobyabwenge nyuma y’uko umuryango w’abibumbye uhagarikiye ikoreshwa rya Diamorphine iva muri poppy flower nk’umuti usanzwe, Mugo yamye ikorwa ikanakwirakwizwa n’ibyihebe n’imitwe y’iterabwoba.

Mugo yose yinjiye muri Amerika mbere yuko iki gihugu kiva mu ntambara ya Vietnam mu 1978, yakorwaga ikanakwirakwizwa na abaturage b’abashinwa batashakaga ingoma ya gikomunisite bitwa Hmong, ikingiwe ikibaba n’Ikigo gishinzwe ubutasi muri Amerika (CIA) mu gace kari kariswe Golden Triange.

Hagati ya Ukwakira 2010 na Mata 2011 nicyo gihe cyabaye ho abakoresha mugo benshi bagapfa ku isi kuko yari yarabaye nkeya ku isoko nyuma yo kuvumbura igiturika gikoze mu butyo bw’ifu ku kibuga cy’indege cya Jordania, byatumye hirya no hino ku isi imizigo y’amafu ikumirwa kujya mu ndege ku buryo bukomeye.

Muri icyo gihe kandi byavuzwe ko Leta Zunze ubumwe za Amerika zagerageje kwangiza imirima y’indabyo za poppy zikoreshwa mu gukora mugo mu bihugu bya Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq ikoresheje ibyuka yateye mu kirere gihinzemo izo ndabyo.

Ibimenyetso abakoresa mugo bahurira ho iyo bayibuze ni ukuribwa ku mubiri bakishimagura, kumva amajwi menshi y’ibintu bidahari, kurwara mu nda by’igikatu bikagera no ku rwego rwo gucibwamo, kuzana urwanga n’urufuzi mu kanwa, kunanairwa kuvuga bibanzirizwa no kuvuga utugambo twinshi tudafite ikintu na kimwe duhuriyeho no kubeshya ku buryo butangaje kabone niyo yaba ari kukubwira ibyo azi ko uzi kumurusha.

TANGA IGITEKEREZO KURI IYI NKURU